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3D Anatomic Models

These 3D models are made from micro CT, which is a type of imaging scan that uses high energy x-rays to reconstruct anatomy.  The resolution of this type of scan is far higher than CT scans in clinical use.  This page is intended to showcase 3D models of the structures of hearing and balance.  More information on the function of each of those structures is available on the relevant wikipedia pages.  All models were created by Jeffrey D. Sharon, MD

Anatomy

Inner ear, middle ear bones, and ear drum.  

Inner ear

This model, which was based off of a microCT scan, shows accurate anatomy of the human inner ear. This includes the cochlea- the organ of hearing, and the vestibule and the semicircular canals, which aid in balance.

Temporal Bone

Temporal Bone with Inner Ear

 

Orbit with Eye Muscles

Surgery

Stapes Surgery

The scene shows a stapes surgery for otosclerosis, where the stapes bone is replaced with a prosthesis. Note that simplifications are present for the sake of clarity.

Ossicular Chain Reconstruction with TORP

This scene shows that the incus is missing, and also the top part of the stapes. Reconstruction is performed with a TORP (Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis), which bridges the gap between the malleus and the stapes footplate, to restore the pathway for sound transmission.

Ossicular Chain Reconstruction with PORP

The scene shows that part of the incus bone is missing, and therefore sounds can’t be transmitted from the eardrum to the cochlea. To fix the problem, a PORP (Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis) is placed to bridge the gap, and restore hearing.

Tympanic Membrane Perforation

This clip show a hole in the eardrum (tympanic membrane perforation), being repaired with a graft.

Cochlear Implant

The scene shows the internal and external parts of a cochlear implant. The external device is labelled, but due to limits on annotations, the internal device could not be labelled. It consists of an internal magnet, which aligns with the external magnet. That allows the internal antenna or coil to align with the external one, so that signals can be transmitter to the receiver/stimulator, which then transmits electric signals to the electrode array in the cochlea. So, sounds are concerted to electric signals, which then stimulate the cochlear nerve, allowing one to hear.

Here is short video on Cochlear Implants.